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Thursday, 7-Apr-2011 16:36 Email | Share | | Bookmark
The human Brain

The human brain . what is it? it is the center of the human nervous system. Enclosed in the cranium, it has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times as large as the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size. the Most of the expansion comes from the cerebral cortex, a convoluted layer of neural tissue that covers the surface of the forebrain. brain Especially expanded , the frontal lobes, which are associated with executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. The portion of the brain devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in human beings.Brain evolution, from the earliest shrewlike mammals through primates to hominids, it is marked by a steady increase in encephalization, or the ratio of brain to body size. human brain has been estimated to contain 80 or 90 billion non-neuronal cells (glial cells) as well as 80 or 90 billion neurons, of which about 10 billion are cortical pyramidal cells. These cells pass signals to each other via as many as 1000 trillion (synaptic connections. However, recent research has shown that the modern human brain has actually been shrinking over the last 28,000 years.The brain monitors and regulates the body’s actions and reactions. It continuously receives sensory information, and rapidly analyzes these data and then responds, controlling bodily actions and functions. The brainstem controls breathing, heart rate, and other autonomic processes that are independent of conscious brain functions. The neocortex is the center of higher-order thinking, learning, and memory. The cerebellum is responsible for the body’s balance, posture, and the coordination of, Despite being protected by the thick bones of the skull, suspended in cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier, the human brain is susceptible to many types of damage and disease. The most common forms of physical damage are closed head injuries such as a blow to the head, a stroke, or poisoning by a variety of chemicals that can act as neurotoxins. Infection of the brain is rare because of the barriers that protect it, but is very serious when it occurs. The human brain is also susceptible to degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. A number of psychiatric conditions, such as depression, are widely thought to be caused at least partially by brain dysfunctions, although the nature of such brain anomalies is not well understood.

adult human brain weighs on average about 3 lb, around 1130 cubic centimetres (cm3) in women and 1260 cm3 in men, although there is substantial individual variation. Men with the same body height and body surface area as women have on average 100g heavier brains, although these differences do not correlate in any simple way with gray matter neuron counts or with overall measures of cognitive performance. Neanderthals, an extinct subspecies of modern humans, had larger brains at adulthood than present-day humans. The brain is very soft, having a consistency similar to soft gelatin or firm tofu.[11] Despite being referred to as “grey matter”,

the live cortex is pinkish-beige in color and slightly off-white in the interior. At the age of 20, a man has around 176,000 km and a woman about 149,000 km of myelinated axons in their brains

cerebral hemispheres form the largest part of the human brain and are situated above most other brain structures. They are covered with a cortical layer with a convoluted topography.[13] Underneath thecerebrum lies the brainstem, resembling a stalk on which the cerebrum is attached. At the rear of the brain, beneath the cerebrum and behind the brainstem, is the cerebellum, a structure with a horizontally furrowed surface that makes it look different from any other brain area.

same structures are present in other mammals, although the cerebellum is not so large relative to the rest of the brain. As a rule, the smaller the cerebrum, the less convoluted the cortex. The cortex of a rat or mouse is almost completely smooth. The cortex of a dolphin or whale, on the other hand, is more convoluted than the cortex of a human.
The dominant feature of the human brain is corticalization. The cerebral cortex in humans is so large that it overshadows every other part of the brain. A few subcortical structures show alterations reflecting this trend. The cerebellum, for example, has a medial zone connected mainly to subcortical motor areas, and a lateral zone connected primarily to the cortex. In humans the lateral zone takes up a much larger fraction of the cerebellum than in most other mammalian species. Corticalization is reflected in function as well as structure.

surgical removal of the entire cerebral cortex leaves an animal that is still capable of walking around and interacting with the environment. In a human, comparable cerebral cortex damage produces a permanent state of coma. The amount of association cortex, relative to the other two categories, increases dramatically as one goes from simpler mammals, for example the rat and the cat, to more complex ones, such as the chimpanzee and the human.

The cerebral cortex is essentially a sheet of neural tissue, and folded in a way that allows a large surface area to fit within the confines of the skull. Each cerebral hemisphere, in fact, has a total surface area of about 1.3 square feet Anatomists call each cortical fold a sulcus, and the smooth area between folds a gyrus.
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Thursday, 7-Apr-2011 16:31 Email | Share | | Bookmark

what we know about brain? The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Some primitive animals such as jellyfish and starfish have a decentralized nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. In vertebrates the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell.Brains can be extremely complex. now, cerebral cortex of the human brain contains roughly 15–33 billion neurons, perhaps more, depending on gender and age, linked with up to 10,000 synaptic connections each. Each cubic millimeter of cerebral cortex contains roughly one billion synapses. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body and target them to specific recipient cells.The brain controls the other organ systems of the body, either by activating muscles or by causing secretion of chemicals such as hormones and neurotransmitters. This centralized control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment. well, Some basic types of responsiveness are possible without a brain: even single-celled organisms may be capable of extracting information from the environment and acting in response to it. Sponges, which lack a central nervous system, are capable of coordinated body contractions and even locomotion. In vertebrates, the spinal cord by itself contains neural circuitry capable of generating reflex responses as well as simple motor patterns such as swimming or However, sophisticated control of behavior on the basis of complex sensory input requires the information-integrating capabilities of a centralized brain.Despite rapid scientific progress, much about how brains work remains a mystery


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